Asynchronous Refresh of AAS Model using PowerShell

With the introduction of REST API to refresh the analysis services model, we can now perform asynchronous data refresh operations. This also includes synchronization of read-only replicas for query scale out.

Some of the pros of using this approach is:

  1. Since the requests are asynchronous, there is no need for long running HTTP connections
  2. In response we get a operation id which can be used to query the status of the job
  3. In-built functionality for auto-retries
  4. Multiple table/partition names can be passed so that only that part is refreshed
  5. Batch Processing is supported using the “CommitMode” parameter

More details of the API can be found here, which includes the permissions required to make the calls along with detailed info of all the parameters:

As mentioned in above documentation, you need a valid access token to make this call. The PowerShell to get that token via certificate auth or via client id/secret can be found here. The code works perfectly, just make sure to use the correct scope which in this case is: https://* Also the user or application making the call should be server admin on the AAS.  The code is quite simple afterwards (used azure functions for the below):

using namespace System.Net
# Input bindings are passed in via param block.
param($Request, $TriggerMetadata)
# Init defaults
$status = [HttpStatusCode]::BadRequest
$ErrorActionPreference = "STOP"
$RequestBody = $Request.Body
if (!$RequestBody) {
Push-OutputBinding Name Response Value ([HttpResponseContext]@{
StatusCode = $status
Body = "Please pass a valid body in the request's body."
else {
# Retrieve AAS details from request body
$AnalysisServerName = $RequestBody.AnalysisServerName
$AnalysisServerLocation = $RequestBody.AnalysisServerLocation
$ModelName = $RequestBody.ModelName
$AASObject = $RequestBody.AASObject
#check if AASObject is empty or not. Irrespective of documentation
#We need Refresh Type for a call as mandatory param
if (!$AASObject -or ($AASObject.Count -eq 0)) {
$AASObject = @{
'Type' = 'Full'
try {
$analysisServerResource = Get-AzAnalysisServicesServer Name $AnalysisServerName
Write-Output "Fetching access token to refresh the model"
#fetch access token which will be used to refresh the models
$Output = New-Object TypeName hashtable
Get-AccessToken Output $Output #fetch access token using the PS here
#request body to be sent to AAS REST API
$jsonBody = $AASObject | ConvertTo-Json;
Write-Output "The body of the REST API call to refresh the model is"
Write-Output $jsonBody
$uri = "https://$$AnalysisServerName/models/$ModelName/refreshes"
Write-Output "Invoking POST $uri"
#$Output.AuthHeaders follows the following format
#$Output.AuthHeaders = @{
#'Content-Type' = 'application/json'
#'Authorization' = "Bearer " + access_token
$PostSplat = @{
Method = 'POST'
Body = $jsonBody
Uri = $uri
Headers = $Output.AuthHeaders
$results = Invoke-RestMethod @PostSplat
Write-Output $results
$status = [HttpStatusCode]::OK
Push-OutputBinding Name Response Value ([HttpResponseContext]@{
StatusCode = $status
Body = $results
catch {
Write-Output "Exception was thrown. Details below."
Push-OutputBinding Name Response Value ([HttpResponseContext]@{
StatusCode = $status
Body = $_

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The $results includes an operationId which can be used to make a GET call to fetch status of the operation. The payload for the above API looks similar to:

“AnalysisServerName”: “analysisservername”,
“AnalysisServerLocation” : “northeurope”,
“ModelName”: “adventureworks”,
“AASObject”: {
“Type”: “Full”,
“CommitMode”: “transactional”,
“MaxParallelism”: 2,
“RetryCount”: 2,
“Objects”: [
“table”: “DimCustomer”,
“partition”: “DimCustomer”
“table”: “DimDate”

If no “Objects” are specified above, the whole model is refreshed.

Also note, that only one request is accepted per model. If there is already an operation running and another is submitted, server will return 409 Conflict HTTP Status Code. Therefore, the return result is very important as we can use the id to query the status of the already running operation.

If you want to sync the new data with replicas for query scale-out, you need to make a POST request to the /sync endpoint separately. The above code for all the operations remain the same except the different in $uri and request body.

Hope this helps!

Happy Coding!

Managing Azure VM Diagnostics Data in Table Storage

Windows Azure Diagnostics (WAD) data is stored in table storage of a storage account. There are many types of tables to store different kind of Azure Windows VM diagnostics data and some of them are mentioned below:

  1. WADMetrics*: Used to store metrics data. It follows a proper naming convention whose details can be found here
  2. WADDiagnosticInfrastructureLogsTable: stores diagnostics infrastructure data
  3. WADWindowsEventLogsTable: Stores event logs data
  4. WADPerformanceCountersTable: stores performance counters data

The issue is we don’t have any mechanism to apply retention policy to these tables or any way to directly delete the data. With time, the data grow exponentially and eventually you pay for all of it. As of August 2019, you have to manually delete the old data/tables. Now there are two ways to do it:

  1. Delete the tables altogether: This is simple and Azure re-creates them to store more WAD data. But the issue is, if your table has millions of records (like mine) it might take few days to delete the table completely. And during this time, any attempt to re-create the table will throw an error. So if your VM is writing constantly to these tables, not a good option
  2. Partially delete the data: Even though it is cumbersome and required writing custom code, I found this better. Basically you can run this code on schedule to delete all the data that is more than a month old (or any time frame). But notice, that you pay for all the operations including deleting the data, even though the cost is very low.

So I decided to go with the approach of making a utility to delete all the data that was more than a month old from logs and performance counters table. But for metrics table, since these tables are created thrice per month, every month, hence I deleted the tables more than 2 months old.

Below is the code to achieve this in normal console application, which you can use as web job too. Install “WindowsAzure.Storage” for it to work.

Delete All Metrics Tables more than two months old:

You have to run the below code twice for PT1H and PT1M tables. Also if your storage account has older data than current year’s, run the code for previous years too by looping through all the years (instead of months)

using System;
using Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage;
using Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Table;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
/// <summary>
/// delete old metrics table both PT1H and PT1M
/// </summary>
/// <param name="tablepPrefix">WADMetricsPT1HP10DV2S and WADMetricsPT1MP10DV2S</param>
/// <returns></returns>
private async Task DeleteOldTables(string tablepPrefix)
string connectionString = ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["StorageAccountConnectionString"].ConnectionString;
CloudStorageAccount cloudStorageAccount = CloudStorageAccount.Parse(connectionString);
CloudTableClient cloudTableClient = cloudStorageAccount.CreateCloudTableClient();
TableContinuationToken token = null;
string currentYear = DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy");
int currentMonth = Convert.ToInt32(DateTime.Now.ToString("MM"));
for (int i = 1; i < currentMonth 1; i++)
string currentTablePrefix = tablepPrefix + currentYear + i.ToString("d2"); //convert single digit month to two digit
var allTablesResult = await cloudTableClient.ListTablesSegmentedAsync(currentTablePrefix, token);
token = allTablesResult.ContinuationToken;
Console.WriteLine("Fetched all tables to be deleted, count: " + allTablesResult.Results.Count);
foreach (CloudTable table in allTablesResult.Results)
Console.WriteLine("Deleting table: " + table.Name);
await table.DeleteIfExistsAsync();
} while (token != null);
Console.WriteLine("Old Tables Deleted");
catch (Exception ex)
Console.WriteLine("Exception occured while deleting tables " + ex.Message);

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Delete logs data more than x days old:

You have to run the below code for all the storage logs table (Infrastructure, Events, Performance etc.)

using System;
using Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage;
using Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.Table;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration;
/// <summary>
/// code to delete data from logs table
/// </summary>
/// <param name="numberOfDays">days before which all data should be deleted</param>
/// <returns></returns>
private async Task DeleteOldData(int numberOfDays)
string connectionString = ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["StorageAccountConnectionString"].ConnectionString;
CloudStorageAccount cloudStorageAccount = CloudStorageAccount.Parse(connectionString);
CloudTableClient cloudTableClient = cloudStorageAccount.CreateCloudTableClient();
CloudTable cloudTable = cloudTableClient.GetTableReference("WADPerformanceCountersTable"); //do this for all other logs table too
string ticks = "0" + DateTime.UtcNow.AddDays(numberOfDays).Ticks.ToString(); //calculate number of ticks for required date for faster query
TableQuery<TableEntity> query = new TableQuery<TableEntity>().
Where(TableQuery.GenerateFilterCondition("PartitionKey", QueryComparisons.LessThanOrEqual, ticks));
Console.WriteLine("Deleting data from " + cloudTable.Name + " using query " + query.FilterString);
TableContinuationToken token = null;
Console.WriteLine("Fetching Records");
TableQuerySegment<TableEntity> resultSegment = await cloudTable.ExecuteQuerySegmentedAsync(query, token);
token = resultSegment.ContinuationToken;
Console.WriteLine("Fetched all records to be deleted, count: " + resultSegment.Results.Count);
foreach (TableEntity entity in resultSegment.Results)
Console.WriteLine("Deleting entry with TimeStamp: " + entity.Timestamp.ToString());
TableOperation deleteOperation = TableOperation.Delete(entity);
await cloudTable.ExecuteAsync(deleteOperation);
} while (token != null);
Console.WriteLine("Entities Deleted from " + cloudTable.Name);
catch (Exception ex)
Console.WriteLine("Exception occured while deleting data from table " + cloudTable.Name + " " + ex.Message);

You can use the above to delete data incrementally on a schedule (via web job, azure function etc) or deleting all of the old data.

P.S. Cloud Table Client uses default exponential retry policy which you can change too. If you do not want to use any retry mechanism, make sure to set it to none. Good thing is, you can set retry policy to a particular action (like Delete) instead of table client in all. For this check implementing retry policies

Hope this helps! Happy coding!


  1. Effective way of fetching diagnostics data from Windows Azure Diagnostics Table
  2. Understanding Windows Azure Diagnostics Costs And Some Ways To Control It

Using MIP SDK in SharePoint – II

This post is in continuation with how to use MIP SDK in C#. Please go through it first to cover some basic concepts like, setting up your system, nuget required for MIP and registering Azure AD app which will be used in the code below too.

My case scenario was to analyze a protected file present in SharePoint Document Library and set/remove protection on it depending on the contents of the document. In case you are not aware, we can use Azure Information Protection or Unified Labeling in SharePoint too. It’s pretty straight-forward and more details can be found here.

In comparison to the code I uploaded on git, there are few basic changes for using MIP SDK in Provider Hosted add-ins. Instead of relying on file path, we will use file stream from SharePoint and similarly, upload that stream back to SharePoint. I am assuming that you all are aware of provider hosted add-ins and have gone through the part one of this post. I am listing the changes below while rest of the stuff remains the same.

  1. Create a provider hosted add-in using Visual Studio. I have used SharePoint Online and MVC template for my work
  2. In AppManifest.xml give proper permission to access libraries of your target site collection
  3. Now coming to HomeController, InvokeMIP method, the first difference is how will we get tenant id of our host web. Instead of finding it in Claims, we will get it using TokenHelper’s method GetRealmFromTargetUrl
  4. Apart from this, we will create SharePoint context to get file stream of the uploaded file where we need to perform MIP operations
  5. Using this stream, MIP file handler will be created
  6. The output will be collected in memory stream
  7. Output Stream will be used to upload the changed document back to SharePoint (For more details on how to upload large files in provider hosted add-in, check this post here)

The complete code will look like below:

private void InvokeMIP()
//this client id is for Azure AD app and NOT of SharePoint app
private static readonly string clientId = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["ida:ClientId"];
private static readonly string appName = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["app:Name"];
private static readonly string appVersion = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["app:Version"];
private static readonly string mipData = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["MipData"];
private readonly string mipPath = Path.Combine(AppDomain.CurrentDomain.BaseDirectory, mipData);
SharePointContext spContext = SharePointContextProvider.Current.GetSharePointContext(HttpContext);
Uri sharepointUrl = new Uri(spContext.SPHostUrl.AbsoluteUri.ToString());
//fetch tenant id to be used in getting access token
string tenantId = TokenHelper.GetRealmFromTargetUrl(sharepointUrl).ToString();
// Set path to bins folder.
var path = Path.Combine(
Directory.GetParent(Path.GetDirectoryName(new Uri(System.Reflection.Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().CodeBase).LocalPath)).FullName,
Environment.Is64BitProcess ? "bin\\x64" : "bin\\x86");
MIP.Initialize(MipComponent.File, path);
ApplicationInfo appInfo = new ApplicationInfo()
ApplicationId = clientId,
ApplicationName = appName,
ApplicationVersion = appVersion
AuthDelegateImplementation authDelegate = new AuthDelegateImplementation(appInfo, tenantId);
var profileSettings = new FileProfileSettings(mipPath, false, authDelegate, new ConsentDelegateImplementation(), appInfo, LogLevel.Trace);
//create MIP File Profile
var fileProfile = Task.Run(async () => await MIP.LoadFileProfileAsync(profileSettings)).Result;
//create MIP Engine and add it to the file profile
var engineSettings = new FileEngineSettings("", "", "en-US");
engineSettings.Identity = new Identity(""); //important to paas a valid admin account here
var fileEngine = Task.Run(async () => await fileProfile.AddEngineAsync(engineSettings)).Result;
//client context to get file stream
using (var clientContext = spContext.CreateUserClientContextForSPHost())
if (clientContext != null)
var list = clientContext.Web.Lists.GetByTitle("Documents");
clientContext.Load(list, i => i.RootFolder);
var listItem = list.GetItemById(1);
clientContext.Load(listItem, l => l.File, l => l.File.ServerRelativeUrl);
var fileData = listItem.File.OpenBinaryStream();
if (fileData.Value != null)
var fileStream = fileData.Value;
//create file handler with the stream from SharePoint
var handler = Task.Run(async () => await fileEngine.CreateFileHandlerAsync(fileStream, listItem.File.ServerRelativeUrl, true)).Result;
//if needed, can check the existing labels and protection details using below two lines
var labelDetails = handler.Label;
var protectionDetails = handler.Protection;
LabelingOptions labelingOptions = new LabelingOptions()
AssignmentMethod = AssignmentMethod.Privileged, //because I am removing a high priority label
IsDowngradeJustified = true,
JustificationMessage = "Lowering label"
//output stream where new file will be stored
Stream outputStream = new MemoryStream();
var result = Task.Run(async () => await handler.CommitAsync(outputStream)).Result;
//This is neccessary else you will get following error
//Specified argument was out of the range of valid values.\r\nParameter name: bytesToCopy
outputStream.Position = 0;
//You can create a new file handler using output stream here
//and use it to apply different label using newhandler.SetLabel() method
//and then upload it to SharePoint too
FileCreationInformation decryptedFile = new FileCreationInformation();
decryptedFile.ContentStream = outputStream;
decryptedFile.Url = "decrypted.docx"; //change this according to your need
decryptedFile.Overwrite = true;
var uploadedFile = list.RootFolder.Files.Add(decryptedFile);
catch(Exception ex)

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Make sure you have registered Azure AD app with proper permissions and your SharePoint App has correct permissions too.

P.S. Please note that MIP SDK does not support content marking (watermark, header, footer). You can apply a label with watermark but it wont be reflected until you open the document and save it in office again. More details here

Happy Coding!

Update November 9, 2019:

Now you can enable sensitivity labels for file present in OneDrive and SharePoint. The feature comes with some new capabilities and some limitations and is currently in public preview. Click here to learn more about this.

Working with C# MIP SDK – I

Recently I got a chance to work with the MIP SDK which is the unification of Microsoft’s classification, labeling, and protection services. Now is the time for data, and its security is paramount for everyone. Microsoft provides some amazing tools to protect our data tenant wide (if you are using O365 Online) or across your farms (in case of on-premises). If you are not aware of the core concepts, I would urge you to read the following links, before jumping to the SDKs.

  1. Azure Information Protection
  2. Office 365 Security and Compliance

The MIP SDK helps you to create custom third-party apps to create, apply, remove labels from your files. It might come handy in cases when you, as a super admin wants to access a protected file, apply labels based on some sensitivity information or even remove labels to check the data. These SDKs are built in C++ and MS provides a C# wrapper over it. There are some good samples provided by Microsoft and they cover a lot of things. But my requirement was bit different. I wanted create a multi-tenant SAAS application which can access these labels. Not only this, it was going to be like a daemon service with no user interaction and hence I needed app-only permissions. Therefore, I used client credential flow to implement this.

Coming back to the challenges I faced:

  1. It took me some time to set up my machine for development
  2. Not much documentation is available for C# and hence I took a lot of time to understand it
  3. The github samples and the test code in the documentation are different. I have to go with code snippets provided in documentation and figure out the rest
  4. Spent some time exploring all the permissions needed and how will they work together for various operations

Here are the assumptions I took from my side:

  1. You have gone through the concepts of File Profiles and File Engines
  2. You already have idea of registering multi-tenant Azure AD app and how it works
  3. You have a basic idea of OAuth and various authorization flow it uses, like client credentials flow

Now coming to the setup of your machine, the exhaustive list could be found here. I am covering the things I did to set up my Windows 10 environment.

  1. Created a demo account which has AIP enabled for trial
  2. Configured few sensitivity labels with various settings in O365 Security and Compliance Center
  3. Make sure your Windows 10 has version 1709 or later
  4. My machine does not have “Developer Mode” enabled but it works
  5. Installed Universal Windows Platform development in VS 2017, which took like 2 hours
  6. Downloaded and installed MIP SDK for Windows
  7. And you are done!!!!!

As our development environment is ready, lets fire up VS (I am using 2017)

  1. Create new .Net Web Application -> Choose MVC Template -> Change Authentication to “Work or School Accounts” -> “Cloud – Multiple Organizations”. Provide relevant domain and create a new project
  2. This will automatically create a registration in Azure AD with your project name. Login to portal -> Azure Active Directory -> App Registrations and search for the app you created
  3. For demo purpose I am using default localhost Redirect URI created by VS
  4. Navigate to “API permissions” tab and grant the following permissions. Make sure to click on “Grant admin consent” so that permissions are authorized by admin. Notice that all are application permission, except for MS Graph which is used for login
  5. Navigate to “Certificates and secrets” tab and create new client secret. Remember to copy and save it in web.config. This is not a secure practice and in production environment you should use Key Vault to store it securely
  6. Move to the project created in VS and update your web.config with following entries
  7. Install following Nuget in the project: Microsoft.InformationProtection.File and Microsoft.IdentityModel.Clients.ActiveDirectory
  8. That’s it!

You can find the complete source code at my github repo. Below are few issues I faced and how I solved it:

  1. Load Library failed for mip_dotnet.dll : To fix this, you need to provide the path of dll from the app folder. That’s why in HomeController line 41 you can see I have initialized MIP by providing the path
    MIP.Initialize(MipComponent.File, path);
  2. Also make sure to provide proper path while creating File Profile at line 54 as this is the place under which logging, telemetry, and other persistent state is stored.
    var profileSettings = new FileProfileSettings(mipPath, false, authDelegate, new ConsentDelegateImplementation(), appInfo, LogLevel.Trace);
  3. Make sure “ID Tokens” is enabled in AD registered app

I hope this helps in getting started with MIP SDK in C#. I have updated the code to remove protection from a file, you can try other similar operations.

In Part two we will go through using MIP SDK with SharePoint files. To make stuff more interesting, we will implement it in SharePoint Provider Hosted Add-In.

Happy Coding!

Update November 9, 2019:

Now you can use sensitivity labels with MS Teams, O365 and SharePoint Sites. This feature is in public preview. Click here to learn more about this.